Here’s a breakdown of this demography race:
Population goes to India: India has more children per mother – 2.65 versus China’s 1.54 – mostly due to China’s one-child policy. Because of their low birth rate, China also has an older population, which is significant for the smaller working age population they’re left with. China’s working age population peaked in 2010 at 73%, and is beginning to decline. India’s working population was 65% in 2010, and continues to increase.
Women in the Workplace goes to China: Though China may have an aging population, they also have a higher percentage of women in the workforce, 67% of women 15 and older compared to India’s 33%.
Education goes to China: China has higher literacy rates.
Health goes to China: China has better access to health care than India.
Infrastructure goes to China: China has better infrastructure, and also more “openness of foreign trade and a sound financial system.”
Comparing the rations of men to women, they both lose, with a disproportionate number of men leaving generations of bachelors twisting in the wind.